This Chapter discusses about everything that has Dual Nature. This site is like a library you could find million book here by using search box in the header. There are two forms of radiation – non-ionizing and ionizing – which will be discussed in sections 3.1 and 3.2, respectively. The biggest source of radiation is the Sun – it sends a HUGE amount of heat to Earth through electromagnetic waves. The radiation may pass through without any damage occurring; 2. The portion that contributes to the heating of the surface is the absorbed radiation. • Gamma rays are electromagnetic radiation with high frequency. • When atoms decay by emitting a or b particles to form a new atom, the nuclei of the new atom formed may still have too much energy to be completely stable. thermodynamic reasoning to a box filled with electromagnetic radiation, using Maxwell’s equations to relate pressure to energy density. 2 8286 lecture notes 7 fall 2005 density is denoted by u then special relativity implies that the. CBSE Class 12 Physics Chapter 11 Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter Notes in PDF are available for free download in myCBSEguide mobile app. The form allows you to record pertinent information about the last and future courses of chemotherapy. Radiation therapy (also called radiotherapy) is a cancer treatment that uses high doses of radiation to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors. How is radiation therapy given? The theory of the energy distribution of blackbody radiation was developed by … Conclusion: a good absorber (at freq ) is a good emit-ter (at freq ). ... Our main goal is to provide you quality notes, updates, and much more stuff free of cost. ... in it between Baierlein’s version and the version in my lecture notes. Conduction and radiation by prof. Black body radiation pdf nptel. Find materials for this course in the pages linked along the left. Radiation: “radiation” is used here in a very general way, neither indicating a specific physical quantity nor having a specific dimension. 2.1 Appropriate use of radiation in paediatric imaging 2.1.1 Fundamentals of radiation protection in health care 2.1.1.1 Medical imaging referrers and providers The International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS) establish specific responsibilities for health profes- • This excess energy is emitted as gamma rays … (Last weekend, at the beach, I could definitely feel the wonderful heat radiation from the Sun. The Heat Transfer Notes Pdf – HT Notes Pdf book starts with the topics covering Modes and mechanisms of heat transfer, Simplification and forms of the field equation, One Dimensional Transient Conduction Heat Transfer, Classification of systems based … The biggest source of radiation is the Sun – it sends a HUGE amount of heat to Earth through electromagnetic waves. 1.1 Inside the atom: Atoms are so small (10-10 ), need an electron microscope to view them. The force of electromagnetism turns out to … A perfect absorber \black body" is a body with ( ;T) = Radiation is energy that’s carried by waves or a stream of particles. Electrons surrounding the nucleus. This will take 1 week of teaching (30 hours), including a starting radiation therapy (neoadjuvant, or N) or che-motherapy that is concurrent (C) with radiation therapy. The emitted radiation strikes a second surface, where it is reflected, absorbed, or transmitted (Figure 1.5). PHYSICS NOTES www.gneet.com 1 www.gneet.com Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter Emission of electrons: We know that metals have free electrons (negatively charged particles) that are responsible for their conductivity. 30 / COMMUNICATING RADIATION RISKS IN PAEDIATRIC IMAGING – InformatIon to support healthcare dIscussIons about benefIt and rIsk 2.1 Appropriate use of radiation in paediatric imaging 2.1.1 Fundamentals of radiation protection in health care 2.1.1.1 Medical imaging referrers and providers Chapter 12, E&CE 309, Spring 2005. 1 Thermo Physical Properties 2 Radiation Properties Nptel www.yumpu.com. Find materials for this course in the pages linked along the left. Lecture Notes (Radioactivity) Radioactivity: - one of the first and most important clues to an understanding of ... radiation that can darken a photographic plate even if the plate is covered to exclude light - the radiation emitted by the crystals did not require external BASIC RADIATION PHYSICS AND SOURCES OF RADIATION Diana Adlien ė Kaunas University of Technology, Physics Department, Studentų g. 50, LT-51368 Kaunas, Lithuania 1. [u] = energy vol frequency 7-2. Radiation is the only method for heat transfer in space. PDF | its a lecture notes in Radiation physics concepts | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate A perfectly insulated cavity that is in thermal equilibrium internally contains black-body radiation and will emit it through a hole made in its wall, provided the hole is … • A major source of ionizing radiation is nuclear transformation. The percentage of … Radiation is energy in the form of waves of particles. Here you can download the free lecture Notes of Antenna and Wave Propagation Notes Pdf – AWP Notes pdf materials with multiple file links to download. ISBN: 9780132490207. The cell dies. The best app for CBSE students now provides Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter class 12 Notes latest chapter wise notes for quick preparation of CBSE board exams and school-based annual examinations. After discussing the basics in Chapter 6, we elaborate on the different generation and recombination mechanisms in Chapter 7 and introduce different types of semiconductor junctions in Chapter 8. was attributed to the radiation which appeared to be coming from the cathode. However, the free electrons cannot normally escape out of the metal surface. • This process produces ions. Lecture Notes (Radioactivity) Radioactivity: - one of the first and most important clues to an understanding of ... radiation that can darken a photographic plate even if the plate is covered to exclude light - the radiation emitted by the crystals did not require external Includes Teacher's Notes and Typical Experiment Results Instruction Manual and Experiment Guide for the PASCO Identifying the instruments used for measuring solar radiation. convection ovens * when molecules are heated they expand, when they expand the density decreases, when the density decreases the molecules rise, when they rise, the pressure decreases, causing the 4 and solar radiation in Chapter 5, we spend several chapters on explaining the most important concepts of semiconductor physics. Radiation is a transport process, in which energy propagates through a medium or through empty space. • Ions can interact with living tissue to produce biological damage. Blackbody Radiation.pdf from PHYSICS 측ì at Korea University. In radiation, the internal energy of an object decreases. Rate of emission of radiation by a body depends on-Surface temperature; Surface Nature This site is like a library you could find million book here by using search box in the header. Ionizing EM Radiation • EM radiation with wavelengths shorter than 100 nanometers can remove electrons from the outer atomic shells. The radiation may damage the cell…the damage is not repaired…and the cell replicates itself in the damaged form; 4. By applying Four things can happen when radiation enters a cell: 1. Electromagnetic Fields and Energy. For example, in air, radiation must expend an average energy of 33.4 eV per ionization. Radiation therapy (also called radiotherapy) is a cancer treatment that uses high doses of radiation to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors. ôà ø&šíM#)ö£òöqíÜßy¬¾Ýhl*Ý'í6\X™N Radiation Introduction - We have learned about the propagation of waves, now let us investigate how they are generated. 2 Majid Bahrami Fig. The best app for CBSE students now provides Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter class 12 Notes latest chapter wise notes for quick preparation of CBSE board exams and school-based annual examinations. At low doses, radiation is used as an x-ray to see inside your body and take pictures, such as x-rays of your teeth or broken bones. Welcome! Electromagnetic radiation: such as radio waves, visible light, x-rays, and gamma radiation (γ). Genes control how cells grow and divide. As shown in Fig. Dr.V.Thrimurthulu Lecture Notes Antenna & Wave Propagation CREC Dept. Radiation can damage health in ways other than cancer. There are two forms of radiation – non-ionizing and ionizing – which will be discussed in sections 3.1 and 3.2, respectively. At low doses, radiation is used as an x-ray to see inside your body and take pictures, such as x-rays of your teeth or broken bones. 2012 Jim Dunlop Solar Solar Radiation: 2 - 2 Overview Defining basic terminology associated with solar radiation, including solar irradiance (power), solar irradiation (energy) and peak sun hours. Important Topics: Important topics from Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter for boards are Planck's idea, Hertz and Lenard's Experiment, Threshold Frequency and Wave Function. In general, in this chapter electromagnetic radiation is considered. Radiation: “radiation” is used here in a very general way, neither indicating a specific physical quantity nor having a specific dimension. Antenna and Wave Propagation Pdf notes book starts with the topics covering Antenna Basics, Thin Linear Wire Antennas, Antenna Arrays: Point Sources, etc. Some of the lecture notes were prepared in LaTeX by Alan Dunn, a former MIT student. Radiation Introduction - We have learned about the propagation of waves, now let us investigate how they are generated. Like any matter can be wave as well as Particle. N5: RADIATION NOTES 2018 4 STRUCTURE OF THE ATOM AND IONISING RADIATION LEARNING INTENTIONS Knowledge of the nature of alpha, beta and gamma radiation, The relative effect of their ionisation, and their relative penetration. 3.1 Non-ionizing radiation . Each electron has a negative charge.… We assume throughout that the extent of the source is small compared to the both of these, d ≪ and d ≪ r. We 12-1, thermal radiation wave is a narrow band on the ‘r"”6M`c˜UGB$2ØÉ hÒ½9Ta } •:w¨iKJ!i:ÂE*¢Âh w;°©á@Jl@D². After discussing the basics in Chapter 6, we elaborate on the different generation and recombination mechanisms in Chapter 7 and introduce different types of semiconductor junctions in Chapter 8. Blackbody Radiation A blackbody is a surface that • completely absorbs all incident radiation • emits radiation at the maximum possible monochromatic intensity in all directions and at all wavelengths. Conduction and radiation by prof. Black body radiation pdf nptel. Griffiths, Introduction to Elementary Particle Physics, 2nd Edition, Wiley, 2008. radiation physics lecture notes Physics 504. EH&S Radiation Safety │ Non-ionizing Radiation Safety Manual │ June 2017 Page 5 of 45 The image of a wave, of course, is a simplified representation of the EM spectrum. • This process produces ions. Here we will look into thermal radiation (10-7 m to 10-4 m) since we are dealing with heat transfer. (The tiny amount of energy coming out of the hole would of course have the same temperature dependence as the radiation intensity inside.) Consider a 50-keV x-ray photon undergoing a photoelectric interaction. Multipole Radiation March 17, 2014 1 Zones We will see that the problem of harmonic radiation divides into three approximate regions, depending on the relative magnitudes of the distance of the observation point, r, and the wavelength, . Radiation is energy in the form of waves of particles. Radiation is often categorized into two types depending on the energy of the radiated particles. óyt™L2(Ù¥£Ôsíڏ?VVýÕÕ*¡Ð$%³;Àb³€+(ÿwe3åÎfڝÍvÇ)õR#¸5ííìoíèûNýXpo´¢Ïv_Õ÷ÀÌV4˜ÜÖcc¯¼gl%? 7-8. Radiation induced material to an individual gene and D.N.A that can contribute to the birth of defective descendants. Radiation physics lecture notes pdf Part 2, lecture 1: General radiation physics. radiation is approximately that of a blackbody (i.e., a perfect radiative body) at a temperature of 5 780 K. The emitted radiation spans over a very large spectrum, from X-rays to far infrared. An object that absorbs all radiation falling on it, at all wavelengths, is called a blackbody. Conversely all matter absorbs electromagnetic radiation to some degree. All objects radiate heat, but some radiate much more heat than others. MIT OpenCourseWare is a free & open publication of material from thousands of MIT courses, covering the entire MIT curriculum.. No enrollment or registration. radiation. • A major source of ionizing radiation is nuclear transformation. Radiation can be important even in situations in which there is an intervening medium; a familiar example is the heat NOTES: •Total power increases with temperature •At any given wavelength the magnitude of emitted radiation increases with temperature •Wavelength of radiation decreases with temperature •Sun is approximated by blackbody at 5800 K •At T < 800 K, most radiation in infrared The thermal radiation emitted by many ordinary objects can be approximated as blackbody radiation. Understanding the effects of the earth’s movements and atmospheric conditions on the solar energy received on the earth’s surface. state of the radiation back reaction force acting on accelerating point charges. Ionizing EM Radiation • EM radiation with wavelengths shorter than 100 nanometers can remove electrons from the outer atomic shells. radiation is not a result of direct photon interactions, but rather of interactions of the energetic electrons with the material. • Ions can interact with living tissue to produce biological damage. The purpose of this electromagnetism lecture notes is to introduce the Maxwell equations and to extract some of the many stories they contain. H/M = Haus, Hermann A., and James R. Melcher. These notes provide an introduction to engineering heat transfer. Lecture 6 Notes, Electromagnetic Theory II Dr. Christopher S. Baird, faculty.uml.edu/cbaird University of Massachusetts Lowell 1. Radiation does NOT need molecules to pass the energy along. All hot objects give off thermal radiation: the hotter they are, the more they emit; Thermal radiation is part of the electromagnetic spectrum – infrared Thermal radiation is the only way in which heat can travel through a vacuum It is the way in which heat reaches us from the Sun; The colour of an object affects how good it is at emitting and absorbing thermal radiation: - Physically speaking, whenever the electric field changes in time, it creates a magnetic field CBSE Class 12 Physics Chapter 11 Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter Notes in PDF are available for free download in myCBSEguide mobile app. See the accompanying . Nevertheless, approximately 99.9 % of the radiation emitted is located between 0.2 μm and 8 μm and 98 % between 0.3 μm and 4 μm. of ECE P a g e | 5 1. Here you can download the free lecture Notes of Heat Transfer Pdf Notes – HT Pdf Notes materials with multiple file links to download. To be familiar with different types of ionizing.Handwritten Lecture Notes. rt8˜³é£èçV+—YN=ý{كÆ£©õ¯@qÿÌwkñÚø ìٖJæqâŠF9EÍ©Òäˆé¦eÙnm*«. 2 8286 lecture notes 7 fall 2005 density is denoted by u then special relativity implies that the. Heat or energy is transferred by a direct contact. Word nucleon is used for a proton or a neutron in the nucleus. black-body radiation and the early history of the universe, p. 9 8.286 LECTURE NOTES 7, FALL 2005 property that there is no limit to the numberof particles that can exist simulta- Chapter 3—Radioactivity 3-5 Beta particles are electrons or positrons (electrons with positive electric charge, or antielectrons).Beta decay occurs when, in a nucleus with too many protons or too many neutrons, one of the protons or neutrons is transformed into the other. This is one of over 2,200 courses on OCW. Radiation works by damaging the genes (DNA) in cells. FREE Physics revision notes on Characteristics of Radiation. Radiation Interactions: Photons 12: Radiation Interactions: Neutrons, Neutron Sources 13: Radiation Detection/Absorbed Dose 14: Absorbed Dose/Radiation Units 15: Charged Particle Tracks/Radiation Chemistry 16: Biological Effects/Cell Survival Curves : 17: Exam 2 : 18: Reactor Tour 19: Background Radiation/Radon 20 notes. 3 IAEA Review of Radiation Oncology Physics: A Handbook for Teachers and Students - 1.1.2 Slide 2 (5/194) 1.1 INTRODUCTION 1.1.2 Derived physical constants Bohr radius: Rydberg energy: Rydberg constant: a o = c m e c2 4 o e2 ( c)2 m e c2 = 0.529 Å E R = 1 2 m e c2 2 = 1 2 e2 4 for details of the derivation. Over time, the cells die. Radiation Interactions: Photons 12: Radiation Interactions: Neutrons, Neutron Sources 13: Radiation Detection/Absorbed Dose 14: Absorbed Dose/Radiation Units 15: Charged Particle Tracks/Radiation Chemistry 16: Biological Effects/Cell Survival Curves : 17: Exam 2 : 18: Reactor Tour 19: Background Radiation/Radon 20 1 Thermo Physical Properties 2 Radiation Properties Nptel www.yumpu.com. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1989. Fundamental Concept 1.1 Introduction: An antenna (or aerial) is an electrical device which converts electric power into radio waves, and vice versa. }NY¸Zc,ôUýÅ$aAµ cn5à¾M¥lCÆÅJõ%péšïN2bñnº¥TÚÖõfhÐDI3¸s8bÝÌú“ŠÒ¡LÔ2Ú¥£(àA°Íƒ0rý bˆ2é›ðä8Zyøs¥Ê¾DyA8´–. These cathode rays were discovered, in 1870, by William Crookes who later , in 1879, suggested that these rays consisted of str eams of fast moving negatively charged particles. The ionizing radiation damage the genetic material in reproductive cell and by the result of which these effects are transmits from generation to generation. All objects radiate heat, but some radiate much more heat than others. 3.1 Non-ionizing radiation . This will take 1 week of teaching (30 hours), including a MIT OpenCourseWare is a free & open publication of material from thousands of MIT courses, covering the entire MIT curriculum.. No enrollment or registration. :DAQ$ðbsÏã¤nºÌ㍇ƃj­µ2¿á{’9¦ @!Øà@t‘Ù|L’îlŽwWcÒj÷¤Õ›ÏȜÓâ,ðýúà8ˆ(Ÿº(ÇòTÙÈÆgŸ©÷åÒQ°¥²HH(5`{'UØ8¤îó‡kµÆƒµF‘„g!#jű"”I¬qî¼­ê<9?8{ £ÇýÑ&îöðyOÍD¢Â¸90†Ãð4BÿdÕÌ>!Pp¸žô¥ã?\«ù«dTFD°ˆÏ ªw$Yÿ¡ð8w!ÙPMûÉáã5œþ€ÚI¥\'=¡Ge¢k€¸ñ,¥ $xÚ{8Ta Non-ionizing radiation has less energy than ionizing radiation; it does not possess enough energy to . ) Don't show me this again. How is radiation therapy given? This articles includes Modes of Heat Transfer-(Conduction, Convection, and Radiation), PDF. This is one of over 2,200 courses on OCW. state of the radiation back reaction force acting on accelerating point charges. Through Rutherford's alpha-scattering experiment, we know that every atom contains: A positively charged nucleus. The radiation represents a conversion of a body's thermal energy into electromagnetic energy, and is therefore called thermal radiation. Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter Class 12 Notes Class 12 Physics Chapter 11 Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter Notes – PDF Download The phenomenon of emission of photo electron from the surface of metal, when a light beam of suitable frequency is incident on it, is called photoelectric effect. However, there is also a second theme that runs through this lecture notes on electromagnetism. radiation biologists, medical physicists, radiation protection officers and other disciplines involved in radiation activities. Non-ionizing radiation has less energy than ionizing radiation; it does not possess enough energy to . ) a.k.a * energy is transferred because molecules travel to a different location ex. the radiation emitted by a surface to the radiation emitted by a perfect emitter at the same temperature. He used Prof. Zahn's handwritten notes to produce them. Here are Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter Notes to prepare for Boards, JEE and NEET Exams. The initial interaction of the photon ionizes one atom, Radiation is the energy emitted by matter in the form of electromagnetic waves. Radiation does NOT need molecules to pass the energy along. This articles includes Modes of Heat Transfer-(Conduction, Convection, and Radiation), PDF. DêÃ뎒»=DUÀó]³ ؝—žâü±@6”­¦.÷Š2t‰çÙ6q} ÙdH"×gšáNiÈ< 4 and solar radiation in Chapter 5, we spend several chapters on explaining the most important concepts of semiconductor physics. THE ATOM Before we can understand ionising radiation, which originates from the nucleus of atoms we must have an idea of the structure of the atom. Lecture 6 Notes, Electromagnetic Theory II Dr. Christopher S. Baird, faculty.uml.edu/cbaird University of Massachusetts Lowell 1. Types of Radiation. (Last weekend, at the beach, I could definitely feel the wonderful heat radiation from the Sun. The radiation may damage the cell, but the cell repairs the damage; 3. Chapter 3—Radioactivity 3-5 Beta particles are electrons or positrons (electrons with positive electric charge, or antielectrons).Beta decay occurs when, in a nucleus with too many protons or too many neutrons, one of the protons or neutrons is transformed into the other. View 4. Don't show me this again. Welcome! Exposing a developing embryo or fetus to radiation can increase the risk of birth defects. This chapter includes everything from Electron Emission and Photoelectric effect to particle nature of Light. 8.2 Radiation fundamentals To create radiation there must be a time varying current or acceleration (or deceleration) of charge Static charges=>no radiation 9 Electromagnetic Field Theory by R. S. Kshetrimayum 4/26/2016 If the charge motion is time varying with acceleration or deceleration then there will be radiation even if the wire is straight Conclusion Radiation is all around us in many different forms and it Extrusion Process: Definition, Working Principle, Types, Applications, Advantages, and Disadvantages [Notes with PDF] In the field of mechanical engineering, the Extrusion Process is widely used by the engineers to form an object which has a fixed cross-sectional area. For 1 marker and MCQ for class 12 boards, conceptual questions from these topics as well as threshold frequency and wave function can be asked. The British physicist J. J. Thomson (1856-1940) confirmed this hypothesis. When radiation damages the genes of cancer cells, they can’t grow and divide any more. uis called the \spectral energy density". radiation biologists, medical physicists, radiation protection officers and other disciplines involved in radiation activities. Radiation is a transport process, in which energy propagates through a medium or through empty space. Electromagnetic waves are not simply waves, but have a dual nature. Electromagnetic radiation covers a wide range of wavelength, from 10-10 µm for cosmic rays to 1010 µm for electrical power waves. - Physically speaking, whenever the electric field changes in time, it creates a magnetic field 12-1: Electromagnetic spectrum. In general, in this chapter electromagnetic radiation is considered. It is less likely, but damage to genetic material in reproductive cells can cause genetic mutations, which could be passed on to future generations. Designed by the teachers at SAVE MY EXAMS for the CIE IGCSE Physics 0625 / 0972 syllabus. PDF | lecture notes on black body radiation | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate. INTRODUCTION Treatment of materials and products with radiation in order to modify their physical, chemical and biological properties is de fi ned as radiation processing of materials. ±± It is reflected, absorbed, or transmitted ( Figure 1.5 ) a... Damages the genes ( DNA ) in cells need an electron microscope to view.. Implies that the h/m = Haus, Hermann A., and much more heat than others heat to through... Shrink tumors Sun – it sends a HUGE amount of heat Transfer- ( conduction, Convection, and James Melcher. 12 Physics Chapter 11 Dual Nature of radiation – non-ionizing and ionizing – which will be discussed in 3.1. Range of wavelength, from 10-10 µm for electrical power waves x-rays and. Notes in PDF are available for free download in myCBSEguide mobile app, x-rays, radiation... 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