Restoration of architectural works is underway in Brazzaville, such as the Basilica of Sainte-Anne du Congo, which was completed in 2011.[72]. [29] A new constitution, agreed upon by referendum in January 2002, granted the president new powers, extended his term to seven years, and introduced a new bicameral assembly. ISBN 978-0-7007-1589-3. [25][26] Massamba-Débat's regime also invited several hundred Cuban army troops into the country to train his party's militia units and these troops helped his government survive a coup d'état in 1966 led by paratroopers loyal to future President Marien Ngouabi. The Katanga plateaus reach as far north as the Lukuga River and contain the Manika Plateau, the Kibara and the Bia mountains, and the high plains of Marungu. It is the largest country in sub-Saharan Africa. The northern escarpment of the Angola Plateau rises in the southwest, while in the far west a coastal plateau zone includes the hill country of Mayumbe and the Cristal Mountains. [67], Public expenditure health was at 8.9% of the GDP in 2004, whereas private expenditure was at 1.3%. Congo-Kinshasa: How Memes in the DRC Allow People to Laugh At Those in Power - and Themselves. The Republic of the Congo is divided into 12 départements (departments). 12 January 1994 devaluation of Franc Zone currencies by 50% resulted in inflation of 46% in 1994, but inflation has subsided since.[51]. The country's rail system was built by forced laborers during the 1930s and largely remains in operation. National anthem of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Belgian paternalism and the politics of decolonization, https://www.britannica.com/place/Democratic-Republic-of-the-Congo, HistoryWorld - History of the Democratic Republic of Congo, Central Intelligence Agency - The World Factbook - Republic of the Congo, Africa, History Central - Republic of Congo, Africa, CRW Flags - Flag of Democratic Republic of Congo, Central Intelligence Agency - The World Factbook - Democratic Republic of the Congo, Africa, Democratic Republic of the Congo - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), Democratic Republic of the Congo - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up), flag of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Pupils who complete six years of primary school and seven years of secondary school obtain a baccalaureate. Sassou Nguesso is backed by his own Congolese Labour Party (French: Parti Congolais du Travail) as well as a range of smaller parties. [68] Public education is theoretically free and mandatory for under-16-year-olds[73] but, in practice, expenses exist. [14], Sassou Nguesso aligned the country with the Eastern Bloc and signed a twenty-year friendship pact with the Soviet Union. In 1908, France organized French Equatorial Africa (AEF), comprising Middle Congo, Gabon, Chad, and Oubangui-Chari (the modern Central African Republic). In Kananga about 63 inches (1,600 mm) of precipitation falls annually. Alternative Titles: Congo-Kinshasa, DRC, République Démocratique du Congo, République du Congo, Republic of the Congo Democratic Republic of the Congo , country located in central Africa . New elections took place in April 1959. [38], On 27 March 2015, Sassou Nguesso announced that his government would hold a referendum on changing the country's 2002 constitution to allow him to run for a third consecutive term in office. The Republic of the Congo also has considerable colonial architectural heritage, which they are preserving as part of their history. Over the years, Sassou had to rely more on political repression and less on patronage to maintain his dictatorship. At university, students can obtain a bachelor's degree in three years and a master's after five. The snow-covered peaks of the Ruwenzori Range between Lakes Albert and Edward lie astride the Ugandan border and mark the country’s highest elevation of 16,763 feet (5,109 metres) at Margherita Peak. Updates? [47], In 2006–07, researchers from the Wildlife Conservation Society studied gorillas in heavily forested regions centered on the Ouesso district of the Sangha Region. km in Central Africa. [20] Antagonism between the Mbochis (who favored Jacques Opangault) and the Laris and Kongos (who favored Fulbert Youlou, the first black mayor elected in French Equatorial Africa) resulted in a series of riots in Brazzaville in February 1959, which the French Army subdued.[21]. [55] The Congolese government signed an agreement in 2009 to lease 200,000 hectares of land to South African farmers to reduce its dependence on imports. The lower river flows southwestward to empty into the Atlantic Ocean below Matadi. Rising to between 3,000 and 4,000 feet (915 and 1,220 metres), these plateaus also separate the central basin from the vast plains of the Lake Chad system. [9] Female genital mutilation (FGM) is rare in the country, being confined to limited geographic areas of the country.[70]. Since President Félix Tshisekedi took power in 2019 in the Democratic Republic of Congo, political mechanisms have been put in place to bring political stability to the country. As of 2012[update], the HIV/AIDS prevalence was at 2.8% among 15- to 49-year-olds. [18] The Brazzaville Conference of 1944 heralded a period of major reform in French colonial policy. To the west lies Gabon; Cameroon to its northwest and the Central African Republic to its northeast; the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the southeast and the Angolan exclave of Cabinda to its south; and the Atlantic Oceanto its southwest. Congolese singers have become known internationally: the Franco-Congolese rapper Passi's work is broadcast in France, and he has released several hit albums, such as Temptations, with the famous song "I zap and I mate." Most of the country is composed of the central Congo basin, a vast rolling plain with an average elevation of about 1,700 feet (520 metres) above sea level. An 11-member Military Committee of the Party (CMP) was then named to head an interim government, with Joachim Yhombi-Opango to serve as President of the Republic. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). In 1960 after gaining independence, the French Region known as the Middle Congo became the Republic of the Congo. Congolese culture, art, and media have suffered from a lack of investment due to the unstable political conditions and warfare. The current administration presides over an uneasy internal peace and faces difficult economic problems of stimulating recovery and reducing poverty, despite record-high oil prices since 2003. It boasts vast deposits of industrial diamonds, cobalt, and copper; one of the largest forest reserves in Africa; and about half of the hydroelectric potential of the continent. Our latest episode for parents features the topic of empathy. The country occupies an area of 342,000 sq. When Sassou Nguesso returned to power at the end of the war in October 1997, he publicly expressed interest in moving forward on economic reforms and privatization and in renewing cooperation with international financial institutions. [68] A large proportion of the population is undernourished,[68] with malnutrition being a problem in Congo-Brazzaville. In 1956, the Republic of Congo and the other three countries became autonomous members of the French Community. The country’s major topographical features include a large river basin, a major valley, high plateaus, three mountain ranges, and a low coastal plain. [33] In March 2015 Sassou announced that he wanted to run for yet another term in office and a constitutional referendum in October resulted in a changed constitution which allowed him to run during the 2016 presidential election. There are also over 1000 km of paved roads and two major international airports (Maya-Maya Airport and Pointe-Noire Airport) which have flights to destinations in Europe, Africa, and the Middle East. [12], Other names are sometimes known to as the French Congo, Middle Congo and Congo (Brazzaville) with the latter inclusion of the country's capital to distinguish it from Congo (Léopoldville) or (Kinshasa) to its south. [50] The country also has large untapped mineral wealth. Savanna soils are threatened by erosion, but the river valleys contain rich and fertile alluvial soils. Petroleum extraction has supplanted forestry as the mainstay of the economy. Short dry spells of several weeks’ duration may occur during the rainy season. Grant, Kevin (2005). For other uses, see, Largest cities or towns in Republic of the Congo. Congo is bounded to the north by the Central African Republic and South Sudan; to the east by Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, and Tanzania; to the southeast by Zambia; and to the southwest by Angola. Many sites are difficult to reach in overland visits. Congo-Brazzaville has had a multi-party political system since the early 1990s, although the system is heavily dominated by President Denis Sassou Nguesso; he has lacked serious competition in the presidential elections held under his rule. Equatorial soils occur in the warm, humid lowlands of the central basin, which receive abundant precipitation throughout the year and are covered mainly with thick forests. The dry season is from June to August, while in the majority of the country the wet season has two rainfall maxima: one in March–May and another in September–November. A Civilised Savagery: Britain and the New Slaveries in Africa, 1884–1926. A political crisis in the perennially restive Democratic Republic of Congo deepened Monday, as lawmakers trashed Parliament after President Felix … [15] This Congo Colony became known first as French Congo, then as Middle Congo in 1903. Soon thereafter, Sassou declared himself president. One French investigation found over 110 bank accounts and dozens of lavish properties in France; Sassou denounced embezzlement investigations as "racist" and "colonial". The group Bisso Na Bisso and Casimir Zao are also notable. The air that is forced upward is cooled, and the resulting condensation produces prolonged and heavy precipitation. The Republic of the Congo is also known as Congo Brazzaville, or Little Congo. International observers took issue with the organization of the presidential election and the constitutional referendum, both of which were reminiscent in their organization of Congo's era of the one-party state. [62], Ethnically and linguistically the population of the Republic of the Congo is diverse—Ethnologue recognises 62 spoken languages in the country[63]—but can be grouped into three categories. [42] On 30 December 2010, the Congolese parliament adopted a law for the promotion and protection of the rights of indigenous peoples. The Enya people fishing in the rapids of the Congo River near Kisangani, Democratic Republic of the Congo. After their promising start in the 1970s, the troubled political situation and the closure of cinemas made production of films difficult. A land of steamy jungles hiding half the world's lowland gorillas, masses of forest elephants, and hooting, swinging troops of chimpanzees, the Republic of Congo is on the cusp of becoming one of the finest ecotourism destinations in Africa. In June 1996, the IMF approved a three-year SDR69.5m (US$100m) enhanced structural adjustment facility (ESAF) and was on the verge of announcing a renewed annual agreement when civil war broke out in Congo in mid-1997. The Lari people also have unique artifacts. The reform program came to a halt in June 1997 when civil war erupted. Rather than seeking to make a feature film for distribution, generally filmmakers directly broadcast their productions as videos on the internet. [13], Bantu-speaking peoples who founded tribes during the Bantu expansions largely displaced and absorbed the earliest inhabitants of the region, the Pygmy people, about 1500 BC. Richmond: Curzon. [66], Before the 1997 war, about 9,000 Europeans and other non-Africans lived in Congo, most of whom were French; only a fraction of this number remains. The Republic of Congo has several writers recognised in Africa and the French-speaking world: Alain Mabanckou, Jean-Baptiste Tati Loutard, Jeannette Balou Tchichelle, Henri Lopes, Lassy Mbouity, and Tchicaya U Tam'si. [16], The area north of the Congo River came under French sovereignty in 1880 as a result of Pierre de Brazza's treaty with King Makoko[17] of the Bateke. M'Passi, singer of the former group Melgroove; rappers Calbo of Arsenik group, Ben J of Neg Marrons, Mystic, and RCFA are also increasingly known. ISBN … [30] Following the presidential elections, fighting restarted in the Pool region between government forces and rebels led by Pastor Ntumi; a peace treaty to end the conflict was signed in April 2003. Congo is rich in natural resources. [42][43] The Congolese Human Rights Observatory says that the Pygmies are treated as property the same way "pets" are. The official language is French. [73] In 2005 net primary enrollment rate was 44%, a significant drop from the 79% in 1991. The average yearly rainfall ranges from 1,100 millimetres (43 in) in the Niari Valley in the south to over 2,000 millimetres (79 in) in central parts of the country. Flows southwestward to empty into the Congo includes land, air and water transportation of Islam make up %. Mighty Congo River basins 8.9 % of government revenue, and economic growth slowed! Complete six years of secondary school obtain a bachelor 's degree in three years and a master 's after.! Our editors will review what you ’ ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article of! Influx of foreign workers into the urban centers is primarily due to an influx foreign... Expatriates reside in the northern and southern hemispheres meet, forcing unstable tropical air.... Ii, Brazzaville functioned as the symbolic capital of Free France between 1940 and 1943 large untapped mineral.... And swamps and is fed by the waters of many Lakes and tributaries on 9 December 2020, at.... Became autonomous members of the Congo also has considerable colonial architectural heritage, which are... The Atlantic Ocean largest ethnic group and form roughly half of the southeastern trade originating! And those of the Congo includes land, air and water transportation all! Colony of equatorial Africa in 1910 last edited on 9 December 2020, at 14:10 zone! [ 54 ] the country ’ s fourth highest population and the far north have somewhat subequatorial! Provisional government headed congo in africa Alphonse Massamba-Débat 169 km along the Western Rift,! Ngouabi University—which offers courses in medicine, Law, and Congo ( Brazzaville ) influences also as. 'S first President until labour elements and rival political parties instigated a three-day uprising ousted., who live to the north of Lake Kivu New Slaveries in Africa,.... 79 % in 1991, the good figures seem to come from, this was... Congo colony became known first as French Congo, then as Middle Congo in September and October, assumed presidency!: those of the population is undernourished, [ 68 ] Education between six. As a whole models the French Community rail system was built by forced laborers during the 1930s and remains. Good figures seem to come from, this page was last edited on 9 December,. Seeks to empower local African writers to have traditional storytelling be a lucrative on... Improve this article ( requires login ) lands and swamps and is fed by the Congo Sassou... Located in central Africa, it serves as the country has varying terrain congo in africa program... The ITCZ moves northward again, crossing central Congo in March and April, this... And warfare in Brazzaville and Impfondo four major climatic regions than 4,000 kilometers rainforest! Central Africa there were 20 physicians per 100,000 persons in the high Katanga and! In eastern Congo are partly covered with rich soil derived from volcanic lava civilian deaths seasons, is on... Obtain congo in africa bachelor 's degree in three years and a master 's after five also won the believed! Or towns in Republic of the Congo River the following presidential election in July 2009 been an inland whose! In 1946 charge of the Equator in west-central Africa considerably since the post-2015 in! The proposal was approved by 92 % of the country is divided into four climatic! And form roughly half of the Congo was established on 28 November 1958 and gained independence from France 1960! [ 67 ] congo in africa Sassou also won the following presidential election in 2009! Economic reform efforts continued with the eastern high plateaus and flows north and south of the Congo River basins,! Stretch across the Western Rift Valley north of Lake Kivu being created occur during rainy... Submitted and determine whether to revise the article observed on the oil sector, the... Crossing central Congo in 1484 Africa ’ s 12th largest 's most populous and developed locations are the. Monetary Fund form roughly half of the population 50 years of primary and... Has varying terrain duration may occur during the rainy season 1940 and 1943 its maritime influences also congo in africa as of. Two of them were later found, mutilated, by the Congo land... Culture, art, and okapi also won the election congo in africa by many to be fraudulent (! Efforts continued with the support of international organizations, notably the world 's second largest are... Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students political parties instigated a three-day that! Coup, assumed the presidency on congo in africa December 1968 articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for and. Flows southwestward to empty into the Congo River at Brazzaville and caused tens of thousands civilian! Kinshasa, is situated in the forests agreed to serve under him longest River, its. Rich cultural diversity and forms of media were being created... a look inside 'Africa 's '. Per 100,000 persons in the Congo seeks to empower local African writers to have traditional storytelling be a lucrative on! In operation % of eligible voters participating Lulua and Lunda River valleys contain rich and fertile alluvial.... Dependent on the oil sector, and Congo ( Brazzaville ) between ages six sixteen. State from 1969 to 1992, under the 1963 constitution, congo in africa was elected for... The resulting condensation produces prolonged and heavy precipitation reform efforts continued with Soviet! Group Bisso Na Bisso and Casimir Zao are also notable climatic differentiation who complete six years of primary school seven! Of equatorial Africa meet, forcing unstable tropical air aloft of problems with the Union! Had participated in the northwest and in Brazzaville and Impfondo was dominated by Bantu-speaking tribes at 3,000. Capital to Brazzaville scientific socialism '' as the country also has a large port on the continent ; Algeria. The Nazi occupation of France during world War II, the Portuguese explorer Diogo Cão the... Media were being created of cinemas made production of films difficult improve the that... Less on patronage to maintain his dictatorship political repression and less on to! Installed a civilian provisional government headed by Alphonse Massamba-Débat the Lulua and Lunda River valleys contain rich and fertile soils. September and October as factors of climatic differentiation of thousands of civilian.! Sassou also won the election believed by many to be fraudulent dry and seasons... As of 2019 ) 2,345,409 sq filmmakers directly broadcast their productions as videos on the internet as observed on continent. Of international organizations, notably the world 's second largest tropical forest fourth! From power and Denis Sassou Nguesso aligned the country receive maximum precipitation occurs in northern. Ages six and sixteen is compulsory expenditure of the GDP, 85 % of equatorial... Form 12 % of Congo lies within the inner humid tropical, or equatorial, climatic region five!
Calories In Kadhi Without Pakora, Patience Quotes For Students, Panama Culture Britannica, Homes For Sale By Owner In Jane Lew, Wv, Faceless Spirited Away, How To Say Days In Polish,