The Sukkur Barrage serves over 20,000 km2 (7,700 sq mi). Over several centuries Muslim armies of Muhammad bin Qasim, Mahmud of Ghazni, Mohammed Ghori, Tamerlane and Babur crossed the river to invade Sindh and Punjab, providing a gateway to the Indian subcontinent. Hinduism: core ideas of Brahman, Atman, Samsara and Moksha. It is home to around 25 amphibian species. Palla fish (Tenualosa ilisha) of the river is a delicacy for people living along the river. The Tibetan Plateau contains the world's third-largest store of ice. caste system. [4] Originating in the Tibetan Plateau in the vicinity of Lake Manasarovar, the river runs a course through the Ladakh region of India[a] towards Gilgit-Baltistan, and then flows in a southerly direction along the entire length of Pakistan to merge into the Arabian Sea near the port city of Karachi in Sindh. 3,249 km (2,019 mi) actual as mentioned in History Books. Pakistan constructed the Tarbela Dam near Rawalpindi – standing 2,743 metres (9,000 ft) long and 143 metres (470 ft) high, with an 80-kilometre (50 mi) long reservoir. [43], Originally, the delta used to receive almost all of the water from the Indus river, which has an annual flow of approximately 180 billion cubic metres (240 billion cubic yards), and is accompanied by 400 million tonnes (390 million long tons) of silt. The heavily populated area extending from Boston to Washington and including New York City, Philadelphia, and Baltimore. The Indus River Valley is distinguished by its plain-like topography and its abundance of rivers. Stone Age people hunted animals and gathered wild plants to eat. AP Human Geography Exam Score of 9.7 11.6 12.1 16.5 16.7 17.9 20. 30 terms. [33], The Indus river dolphin (Platanista indicus minor) is found only in the Indus River. It flows through China (western Tibet), India, and Pakistan. "Now what does that mean to a population that lives in a desert [where], without the river, there would be no life? In Europe most people live in _____ , and worked in _____ ? The Kabul River joins it near Attock. Learn more about the Mauryan empire in this article. The northern part of the Indus Valley, with its tributaries, forms the Punjab region of South Asia, while the lower course of the river ends in a large delta in the southern Sindh province of Pakistan. Mesopotamia, Nile River Valley, Indus River Valley, Huanghe and Wei River Valleys, Mesoamerica. [61] In July 2010, following abnormally heavy monsoon rains, the Indus River rose above its banks and started flooding. In November 2011, satellite images showed that the Indus river had re-entered India, feeding Great Rann of Kutch, Little Rann of Kutch and a lake near Ahmedabad known as Nal Sarovar. Indus river is sacred to Hindus. The Rigvedic hymns apply a feminine gender to all the rivers mentioned therein, except for the Brahmaputra. An area that is either becoming more rural or more urban (around the CBD) Bosnywash. The Mughal Emperor Babur writes of encountering rhinoceroses along its bank in his memoirs (the Baburnama). The smooth-coated otters in the Indus River represent a subspecies found nowhere else, the Sindh otter (Lutrogale perspicillata sindica). The river has historically been important to many cultures of the region. [45] This has reduced the flow of water and by 2018, the average annual flow of water below the Kotri barrage was 33 billion cubic metres (43 billion cubic yards),[46] and annual amount of silt discharged was estimated at 100 million tonnes (98 million long tons). Nearing the end of the Indus Valley Civilization, the cities began to wither and the strong economy slowly deteriorated. Tarbela Dam in Pakistan is constructed on the Indus River, while the controversial Kalabagh dam is also being constructed on Indus river. [citation needed], Southworth suggests that the name Sindhu is derived from Cintu, a Dravidian word for date palm, a tree commonly found in Sindh. [66] The floods caused considerable damage; an estimated 434 civilians were killed, with 5.3 million people and 1,524,773 homes affected. Indus River Valley civilizations. [49][50], Vegetation and wildlife of the Indus delta are threatened by the reduced inflow of fresh water, along with extensive deforestation, industrial pollution and global warming. The people lost their drive to keep the cities orderly and prosperous. "Indus Valley" redirects here. The Kotri Barrage near Hyderabad is 915 metres (3,000 ft) long and provides additional water supplies for Karachi. The lower basin of the Indus forms a natural boundary between the Iranian Plateau and the Indian subcontinent; this region embraces all or parts of the Pakistani provinces Balochistan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Punjab and Sindh and the countries Afghanistan and India. Modern irrigation was introduced by the British East India Company in 1850 – the construction of modern canals accompanied with the restoration of old canals. Qin Dahe, the former head of the China Meteorological Administration, said the recent fast pace of melting and warmer temperatures will be good for agriculture and tourism in the short term, but issued a strong warning: "There is insufficient data to say what will happen to the Indus," says David Grey, the World Bank's senior water advisor in South Asia. AP Human Geography- Unit 6, Part 2. Major carp become common, and chameleonfish (Badis), mullet (Sicamugil) and swamp eel (Monopterus) appear. It is attested 176 times in its text, 94 times in the plural, and most often used in the generic sense of "river". [36] In some upland lakes and tributaries of the Punjab region snowtrout and mahseer are still common, but once the Indus basin reaches its lower plain the former group is entirely absent and the latter are rare. The Guddu Barrage is 1,350 m (4,430 ft) long – irrigating Sukkur, Jacobabad, Larkana and Kalat. Daniela_Alfaro16. The Indus then flows northwest through Ladakh, India, and Baltistan into Gilgit, just south of the Karakoram range. Irrigated agriculture provided an economic base and a written language. This happened two centuries after the Indus river shifted its course westwards following the 1819 Rann of Kutch earthquake. [51], Large-scale diversion of the river's water for irrigation has raised far-reaching issues. all videos study guides slides. The Rigvedic "Sindhu" is thought to be the present-day Indus river. [5] The Indus is the longest river of Pakistan.[6]. [67] Unprecedented torrential monsoon rains caused severe flooding in 16 districts of Sindh. It is subspecies of the South Asian river dolphin. The Zanskar River, which flows into the Indus in Ladakh, has a greater volume of water than the Indus itself before that point.[24]. Unit 2: River Valley Civilizations Patrick Henry High School » Teacher Pages » Social Studies » B. Bellinger » Pre AP World History I » Unit 2: River Valley Civilizations Unit 1: Geography and Beginnings of Mankind [3] It flows through China (western Tibet), India, and Pakistan. Huang He River Valley. The Indus Basin Project consisted primarily of the construction of two main dams, the Mangla Dam built on the Jhelum River and the Tarbela Dam constructed on the Indus River, together with their subsidiary dams. The river has a total drainage area exceeding 1,165,000 km2 (450,000 sq mi). The map also shows the major cities and some of the resources available Irrigation itself is increasing soil salinization, reducing crop yields and in some cases rendering farmland useless for cultivation.[52]. The major cities of the Indus Valley Civilisation, such as Harappa and Mohenjo-daro, date back to around 3300 BC, and represent some of the largest human habitations of the ancient world. NicoLeis. In other languages of the region, the river is known as دریائے سندھ (Darya-ī Sindh) in Urdu सिन्धु (Sindhu) in Hindi, سنڌو (Sindhu) in Sindhi, سندھ (Sindh) in Shahmukhi Punjabi, ਸਿੰਧ ਨਦੀ (Sindh Nadī) in Gurmukhī Punjabi, اباسين (Abāsin lit. 77 terms. [47][48] Any further utilization of the river basin water is not economically feasible. in the list of rivers mentioned in the hymn of Nadistuti sukta. The Indus Valley Civilization was not confined to these two sites in the north-western area of the subcontinent. It was crossed by the invading armies of Alexander, but after his Macedonians conquered the west bank—joining it to the Hellenic world, they elected to retreat along the southern course of the river, ending Alexander's Asian campaign. [67] Sindh is a fertile region and often called the "breadbasket" of the country; the damage and toll of the floods on the local agrarian economy was said to be extensive. and lasted about 5 to 700 years. hamilton98lj. [40][41] Sindhu Darshan Festival is held on every Guru Purnima on the banks of Indus. ", U.S. diplomat Richard Holbrooke said, shortly before his death in 2010, that he believed that falling water levels in the Indus River "could very well precipitate World War III. "But we all have very nasty fears that the flows of the Indus could be severely, severely affected by glacier melt as a consequence of climate change," and reduced by perhaps as much as 50 percent. The dams also generate electricity for heavy industries and urban centers. It gradually bends to the south and descends into the Punjab plains at Kalabagh, Pakistan. Had elaborately planned cities. The Indus system is largely fed by the snows and glaciers of the Himalayas, Karakoram and the Hindu Kush ranges of Tibet, the Indian states and union territories of Ladakh and Himachal Pradesh and the Gilgit-Baltistan region of Pakistan. "But we need to be concerned about that. Reported 18 August 2009", "SEPA orders polluting factory to stop production", "Fishing poison killing Indus dolphins, PA told", "Threat to dolphin: Govt bans fishing between Guddu and Sukkur", "Almost all plastic in the ocean comes from just 10 rivers - 30.11.2017", "Export of Plastic Debris by Rivers into the Sea", "Asia flooding plunges millions into misery", "Pakistan issues flooding 'red alert' for Sindh province", "BBC News – Pakistan floods: World Bank to lend $900m for recovery", "BBC News – Millions of Pakistan children at risk of flood diseases", "Pakistan floods: Oxfam launches emergency aid response", Government of Pakistan Pakmet.com.pk Retrieved on 19 September 2011, "PM okays Indus river barrage to mitigate water woes", "Government to launch Kandhkot-Ghotki bridge over River Indus next month: Sindh CM", "Restore Pakistan's rivers, handle floods, droughts and climate change", "Pakistan: Getting More from Water (see Page 50)", Learn how and when to remove this template message, Bibliography on Water Resources and International Law, Indus River watershed map (World Resources Institute), First raft and kayak descents of the Indus headwaters in Tibet, Pulitzer Center on Crisis Reporting's project on water issues in South Asia, Sanitation of the Indus Valley Civilisation, Inventions of the Indus Valley Civilisation, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Indus_River&oldid=992979770, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia pending changes protected pages, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2016, Articles containing Chinese-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2019, Articles containing potentially dated statements from September 2010, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Wikipedia external links cleanup from April 2020, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Another new barrage called "Sindh barrage" is planned as terminal barrage on Indus River. At least 1.7 million acres (690,000 ha; 2,700 sq mi) of arable land were inundated. [36] This includes including pomfret and prawns. The Indus also supports many heavy industries and provides the main supply of potable water in Pakistan. The Indus civilization apparently evolved from the villages of neighbours or predecessors, using the Mesopotamian model of irrigated agriculture with sufficient skill to reap the advantages of the spacious and fertile Indus River valley while controlling the formidable annual flood that simultaneously fertilizes and destroys. One of the oldest religions in the modern world, dating back over 4000 years, and originating in the Indus River Valley of what is today part of Pakistan. Accounts of the Indus valley from the times of Alexander's campaign indicate a healthy forest cover in the region, which has now considerably receded. It was succeeded by the Shunga dynasty, which ruled in central India for approximately a century. The first farmers also liked to live near rivers. AP Human Geography Comparative Religions Project (Due the day of Culture/Religion Unit Test) By: Abigail and Aeriella Sources: Your FLVS mods and Extension sites for the real dealers: The Evolutionary Tree of Religions (does a great job showing branches, denominations, sects) Hinduism Judaism Buddhism Christianity Islam Slideshow Hindusi m Notes on Judaism Slideshow Judaism Notes on … [62] In early August, the heaviest flooding moved southward along the Indus River from severely affected northern regions toward western Punjab, where at least 1,400,000 acres (570,000 ha) of cropland was destroyed, and the southern province of Sindh. [35], The Indus River basin has a high diversity, being the home of more than 180 freshwater fish species,[36] including 22 which are found nowhere else. 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